Monthly Archives: October 2022

Sodium Chlorite

Sodium Chlorite:

Liquid sodium chlorite is a white or slightly yellow-green aqueous solution, alkaline and slightly hygroscopic. Soluble in water and alcohol. Sodium chlorite is relatively stable at room temperature and under normal storage conditions, and is easily decomposed to release chlorine dioxide gas in the presence of acid. It is easy to explode or burn when it is in contact with, impacted or rubbed with sawdust, organic matter and reducing substances, and it is toxic! The solid sodium chlorite is white crystal or crystalline powder. Slightly hygroscopic. soluble in water. Sodium chlorite generally has two properties: solid and liquid. Liquid sodium chlorite is a dangerous chemical that will explode violently when it encounters acids, acidic substances and reducing substances.


Sodium chlorite is a milder oxidant, which usually does not cause serious damage to fibers, and its impurity removal effect is better than that of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, especially its ability to remove cotton husks is particularly significant. It can be used for bleaching of cotton, synthetic fiber and blended fabrics (not suitable for the bleaching of protein fibers). Currently, it is mostly used for bleaching of polyester-cotton blended fabrics.

Appearance and Shape:

The appearance of solid sodium chlorite is white crystalline powder or granules; liquid sodium chlorite is white or slightly yellow-green aqueous solution, alkaline and slightly hygroscopic. Soluble in water and alcohol.

Content and performance specifications:

Test items 25% sodium chlorite 31% Sodium Chlorite 80% Sodium Chlorite
Appearance shape yellow-green solution yellow-green solution White crystalline powder or granular
Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2) ≥ 25.0 31.0 80.0
Sodium Chlorate (NaCLO3)≤ 0.8 0.6 1.2
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)≤ 0.4 0.3 0.8
Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4)≤ 0.1 0.1 0.8
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)≤ 0.4 0.4 0.6
Sodium chloride (NaCl)≤ 2.0 1.5 15.6
Arsenic (As) 3ppm 3ppm 3ppm

Production Method:

Industrial production has hydrogen peroxide method and electrolysis method.

In the hydrogen peroxide method, the sodium chlorate is first dissolved in water into a solution containing 250g/L of sodium chlorate, then a chlorine dioxide generator is added, and the sulfuric acid is adjusted to 4mol/LH2SO4. The sulfur dioxide and air mixed gas and 4mol/LH2S04 were added to the chlorine dioxide generator for reaction, and the generated chlorine dioxide gas was passed into 3 series-connected bubbling absorption towers, mixed with 27.5% hydrogen peroxide, 18%~20% The liquid caustic soda is reacted, and the resulting solution contains NaClO2140~160g/L. After precipitation, the clear liquid is the liquid sodium chlorite product. It is then concentrated by evaporation to a concentration of sodium chlorite solution of 350-400 g/L, crystallized by cooling, filtered and dried to obtain a finished product of solid sodium chlorite.

Electrolysis method In a three-chamber electrolytic cell separated by a cation exchange membrane, chlorine dioxide gas (with a content of about 15%, and the molar ratio of ClO2:Cl2 not less than 15:1) is passed into the cathode chamber, dissolved in the solution, in the Chlorite is obtained from the cathode at about 30°C, and sodium chloride solution is continuously introduced into the anode chamber, and the chloride ion releases electrons and becomes chlorine gas. Under the action of a DC electric field, sodium ions pass through the anode membrane and enter the cathode chamber to combine with chlorite to form sodium chlorite. The content of the solution is 17% to 23%. After removing the trace amount of chlorine dichloride, the finished product is obtained by spray drying.

Sodium chlorite transportation precautions:

Sodium chlorite belongs to category 5.1 of hazardous chemicals, UN NO:1496. It should not be mixed with acid and reducing substances during transportation; it should be stored in a cool and dry place, away from fire and heat sources, and should not be mixed with acids and reducing substances. In case of fire, water, sand and dry powder fire extinguishers can be used to put out the fire. Sodium chlorite dust is irritating to the respirator tube, eyes and skin. If its solution accidentally splashes on the eyes or skin, it should be rinsed with clean water immediately. After vomiting, he was sent to hospital for treatment, and the lethal dose was 10 grams. The World Health Organization has sorted sodium chlorite into three types of carcinogens. Sodium chlorite has certain toxicity, and the poisoning methods are inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption. The solution of sodium chlorite and acid will emit strong corrosive and irritating gas, and its solution has a strong stimulating effect on human skin. Sodium chlorite liquid is flammable and explosive, so attention should be paid to transportation and storage. Sodium chlorite is widely used, but should be used with caution.

Sodium Chlorite Uses:

  1. It is used for bleaching of pulp, fiber, flour, starch, oil, etc., drinking water purification and sewage treatment, leather hair removal and preparation of chlorine dioxide aqueous solution, etc.
  2. Used as bleaching agent, decolorizing agent, detoxifying agent, dye discharging agent, etc.
  3. It is used for drinking water purification without residual chlorine odor, and the sewage treatment has the functions of sterilization, phenol removal and deodorization. This product is also a high-efficiency bleaching agent, which is used to bleach fabrics, fibers and pulp, and has the characteristics of less damage to fibers.
  4. It is a high-efficiency bleaching agent and an oxidizing agent. Mainly used for pulp, paper and various fibers, such as cotton, hemp, reed. Bleaching of viscose fibers, etc., can also bleach sugar, flour, starch, grease and wax. It is also used for leather depilation, surface treatment of certain metals, drinking water purification and sewage treatment. It can be used as a dye discharge agent for indanthrene dyeing.
  5. Used as a bleaching agent in the food industry.
  6. It is a new type of high-efficiency bleaching agent and oxidizing bactericide.
  7. Sodium chlorite is an efficient bleaching agent and oxidizing agent. For the bleaching of pulp and various fibers, such as cotton, hemp, mulberry, reed, viscose, etc. It can also bleach sugar, flour, starch Chemicalbook, ointment, wax and grease. It is also used for leather depilation, surface treatment of certain metals, drinking water purification and sewage treatment, etc. It can also be used to purify trace amounts of nitric oxide in coke oven gas.

Types and development trend of anionic surfactants


Anionic surfactants are called anionic surfactants after ionization in water, and they have the longest history of development, the largest production volume and the largest variety of products among surfactants.


It is usually insoluble at low temperatures, and if the concentration of the solution continues to increase, it will reach a certain limit value and then precipitate out the hydrated active agent.

If the temperature of water is raised, the solubility increases rapidly at a certain temperature due to the dissolution of micelles, which is called the point of abrupt change.

This property is unique to ionic surfactants.


Soap, alkyl benzene sulfonate, alkyl sulfonate salt, alkyl sulfonate, alkyl sulfate, fluorinated fatty acid salt, polysiloxane, fatty alcohol sulfate, fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate, α-alkenyl sulfonate, fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate, alkyl alcohol amide, alkyl sulfonate acetamide, alkyl succinate sulfonate, alkyl amine alkyl benzene sulfonate, naphthenic acid salt, alkyl phenol sulfonate, polyoxyethylene monolaurate, etc.


1.The full name is anionic polyacrylamide, which is a water-soluble polymer, mainly used in industrial wastewater flocculation, as well as sedimentation and clarification, as well as metallurgical wastewater, sewage treatment, etc. It can also be used for drinking water clarification and purification treatment.

The main advantage of this anionic surfactant is that the water solubility is very good, even in cold water can be dissolved, and the use of a small amount can play a great effect, the use of this substance can also use other inorganic flocculants, there will be greater effect.

2.Fatty acid salts.

This was the first anionic surfactant to be developed and is also the more important detergent and now a very important variety of skin cleanser. This anionic surfactant generally has the ability of wetting, foaming and stain removal, so it is widely used in washing. And with this substance to wash some protein-based fiber products, after cleaning more luster, good elasticity, and more soft.

3.These anionic surfactants, which mainly produce anionic sulfonates after ionization in water, mainly include alkyl benzene sulfonates, alpha olefin sulfonates, alkyl sulfonates, etc.

Among them, alkyl benzene sulfonate is a yellow oily liquid, which is an important anionic surfactant in the table, and is an important component of Chinese synthetic detergents. The main advantage of this anionic surfactant is that it has very good detergency, and has good foaming, good foam stability, and relatively stable chemical properties, and it is important that the cost is relatively low and the sources are widely available, so it is more widely used in civil and industrial cleaning machine is more widely used.

Development Trends

Humans obtained substances for washing and decontamination from natural plants such as saponin (which contains saponin) and grass ash as early as B.C. Later, primitive forms of soap emerged, which were the first anionic active agents used.

The world’s first synthetic detergent was created in Germany in World War I. It was called “Nehel” and contained short-chain alkyl naphthalene sulfonates. By 1984, the total production of surfactants in the world had reached 14 million tons/year, with tens of thousands of varieties, analyzed from various research developments.

The future trends are generally:

(1)from a single function to multi-functional development

(2)From generality to specialization

(3)Adopting multiple compounding of active substances

(4)Emphasis on the “green” mark and “moderate” development direction

(5)Study of phosphorus substitution in inorganic additives

(6)Organic additives to polymer electrolyte-based organic actives

(7)Biological additives using mixed enzymes

(8)Development of special surfactants containing F-Si, etc.

Application of Ethyl Oleate

Ethyl oleate (English name Ethyl Oleate), also known as cis-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester (cis-9-Octadecenoic acid, ethyl ester), 9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester ester), colorless oily liquid, flammable, insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents. It is mainly used in the preparation of lubricants, water repellants, resin toughening agents, surfactants, pharmaceutical excipients, plasticizers and ointment bases and other organic chemicals, and also used as fragrances.

Ethyl oleate is a fatty acid ester formed by the condensation of oleic acid and ethanol. Ethyl oleate is a liquid lipid component in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC is an orally available delivery vehicle for trans-ferulic acid (TFA).

The main function of ethyl oleate:

  1. Used as lubricant, water repellant and resin toughening agent.
  2. It is used in the preparation of surfactants and other organic chemicals, and also used as fragrances, pharmaceutical excipients, plasticizers and ointment bases, etc. Use lubricants.
  3. Water repellent. Resin toughening agent. Gas chromatography stationary solution (maximum operating temperature is 120°C, solvent is methanol and diethyl ether). Uses Used as a gas chromatography stationary liquid, solvent, lubricant and toughening agent for resins

Special talk about the application in medicine

  1. Ethyl oleate is mainly used as a vehicle for some intramuscular injections, as well as for subdermally implanted biodegradable microcapsules and cyclosporine microemulsions.
  2. Ethyl oleate is a suitable solvent for steroids and other lipophilic drugs, and its properties are similar to almond oil and peanut oil. However, compared to fatty oils, ethyl oleate is less viscous and readily absorbed by body tissues. Therefore, it is often used in the manufacture of injections, liniments, ointments and pharmaceutical intermediates.
  3. Ethyl oleate can also be used as a solvent for subcutaneous injection drugs.

Nowadays, ethyl oleate raw materials are abundant, but ordinary raw material manufacturers usually do not have the production and packaging conditions for medicinal products, and dust, particles and other impurities are easily mixed in the preparation process, resulting in raw materials that cannot meet the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. Raw material manufacturers are scarce and products are scarce, which makes it difficult to meet the pharmaceutical industry’s demand for pharmaceutical-grade ethyl oleate.

Common reactions of ethyl oleate

(1) Hydrolysis reaction: ethyl oleate undergoes hydrolysis reaction in the presence of an acid catalyst to generate a reaction equilibrium mixture of oleic acid, ethanol, water ethyl oleate, and the like. When a base is used as a catalyst, the product is oleate, and the reaction is irreversible, also known as saponification. In addition, high-pressure steam hydrolysis can also be performed at high temperature of 185~300 °C to generate oleic acid and methanol.

(2) Ammonolysis, alcoholysis and transesterification: ethyl oleate reacts with ammonia to generate oleic acid amide and ethanol, and reacts with other fatty alcohols other than ethanol to generate new oleate and ethanol. Ethyl oleate reacts with another ester and the ester groups are exchanged to form a new oleate and carboxylate. The above reaction has catalysts such as acid and alkali, which can speed up the reaction.

The production method of ethyl oleate:

It is obtained by esterification of ethanol and oleic acid. Mix oleic acid and ethanol, add catalyst concentrated sulfuric acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid, and heat to reflux. Cooled, neutralized with alkali to pH 8-9, washed with water until neutral, dried over anhydrous calcium chloride, distilled under reduced pressure, and obtained by intercepting ethyl oleate fraction. Mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15-SO3 can also be used as a catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol and oleic acid is excessive, heating, refluxing at a temperature of 130 ° C for 4 hours, cooling, filtration, distillation, and intercepting the ethyl oleate fraction to obtain ethyl oleate.

Ethyl oleate can also be obtained by transesterification of another oleate with ethanol

Storage conditions

Iron drum or glass bottle packaging. It should be stored in a cool, ventilated warehouse, away from fire and heat sources. Storage temperature -20ºC


  1. Prohibit contact with air, light and oxidants. Avoid eye and skin contact.
  2. Exist in flue-cured tobacco leaves.
  3. Naturally present in cocoa, buckwheat, certain fruits and alcohol.

The main role of spices

Introduction of spices:

Perfume, also known as fragrant raw materials, is a substance that can be smelled or tasted by the sense of smell. Except for individual varieties, most spices cannot be used alone. Spices are mostly used in daily necessities, food, tobacco, etc., and are closely related to people’s daily life. With the rapid development of the national economy, the diversified needs of consumers have driven the growth of fast-moving consumer goods such as food, cosmetics, cigarettes, and medical care, which has correspondingly driven the rapid development of the flavor and fragrance industry.

Types of spices:

Spices are divided into natural fragrances and artificial fragrances, of which natural fragrances include animal natural fragrances and plant natural fragrances; artificial fragrances include isolated fragrances and synthetic fragrances.

Natural flavor

Plant-Based Natural Flavor

Fiora natural perfume: It is made of flowers, branches, leaves, grass, roots, bark, stems, seeds or fruits of aromatic plants, steam distillation, extraction, pressing, and absorption. and other methods to produce essential oils, extracts, tinctures, balsams, balsam resins and absolute oils, such as rose oil, jasmine extract, vanilla tincture, white balsam, turmeric resin, narcissus absolute, etc. Ancient humans used all natural spices. The development of synthetic fragrances only began after the First World War. Rose, jasmine, tuberose, vetiver and iris are still popular natural plant fragrances with floral aromas, and are also important components of various daily fragrances such as succulents and oriental fragrances.

Animal natural flavors

Animal natural perfume (Fauna natural perfume): is the secretion or excrement of animals.

There are more than a dozen kinds of animal natural flavors, and only four kinds of musk, ambergris, civet and castore can be formed into commercial products and are often used. Ethanol is often used to make tinctures. Almost all of the more expensive flavor formulations on the market (such as flavors used in high-end cosmetics such as high-end perfumes) contain animal flavors.

Ambergris is a pathologically secreted stone produced in the intestines of sperm whales. Its density is lower than that of water. After being excreted, it floats on the sea surface or washes ashore for collection by people.

Castorum, beaver grows in places like Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. There are two piriform gland sacs near the genitals of beavers, and the white milky viscous fluid in them is castoreum, which is secreted by both male and female beavers. The musk deer is a wild animal that grows in Nepal, Tibet and the northwestern plateau of my country. Male musk deer secrete musk from the age of 2, and the pale yellow, ointment-like secretion secreted from the scrotum is stored in the sachet located at the umbilicus of the musk deer. , and excreted from the body through the central orifice.

Civet Incense Civet Incense comes from the sac-like secretory glands of civet cats. No special processing is required.

Artificial fragrance

Isolated spice

For example, coumarin, phenethyl alcohol and linalool synthesized from acetylene and acetone are used to separate purer fragrance components from essential oils by physical or chemical methods. Cedarwood isolated from cedar wood oil, etc.; semi-synthetic fragrances derived from isolated fragrances or terpene compounds in essential oils through chemical reactions,Such as ionone obtained from citral, terpineol synthesized from pinene, etc. Most of the isolated flavors and semi-synthetic flavors can also be prepared by the total synthesis method, but the aroma quality is slightly different.

Synthetic fragrance

Synthesized with chemical raw materials is called fully synthetic fragrance, such as coumarin, phenylethyl alcohol and linalool synthesized from acetylene and acetone.

The production of synthetic fragrances is not limited by natural conditions, the product quality is stable, the price is relatively low, and many products do not exist in nature but have unique aromas, so they have developed rapidly in the past 20 years. Among them, vanillin, coumarin, phenylethyl alcohol, jasmine aldehyde and artificial sandalwood have a considerable reputation in the international market.

Spices use:

The main use is for the deployment of flavors, which are also known as flavors. Compared with other plants or substances, spices are unique in their attractive aroma, soothing and healing properties. The use of spices can basically be divided into fumigation, painting, consumption, architectural carving and so on.

Plant-based spices are often added to stews, etc., to enhance the aroma of food. For example, Chinese mint, cinnamon, laurel leaves, star anise, cinnabar seeds, lemongrass, sweet-scented osmanthus and jasmine, white orchid, tree orchid, etc., are essential condiments on the Chinese table; Indian sandalwood and Lemongrass, jasmine from Egypt, rosewood from Guyana, lavender from France, rose from Bulgaria, spearmint from the United States and citrus from Italy are all internationally renowned.

Fragrances are widely used in soaps, detergents, various cosmetics (cold cream, vanishing cream, hair cream, hair wax, shampoo, toilet water and perfume, etc.), skin care and beauty products, toothpaste, air cleaners and bactericides and other environmental hygiene products , Candy, biscuits, beverages, tobacco, wine, soy milk, dairy products, vegetable protein foods, as well as flavoring of medicine, paper, plastic, leather, fabric, etc. It is an indispensable existence in people’s daily life.

Development trend:

In recent years, countries such as Switzerland, the United States, Germany, Japan and South Korea have been very active in the application of natural flavors, mainly tending to study the functions of natural flavors, such as immunity, sedation of the nervous system, anti-cancer, anti-aging , anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. There are many studies on natural spice extraction in China. With the change of people’s consumption concept, considering the safety and environmental problems of chemically synthesized substances, the dosage of chemically synthesized fragrances is gradually decreasing, while the application of natural fragrances is becoming more and more extensive. Natural spices are increasingly favored by people because of their green, safe and environmentally friendly features. The world’s natural spice production is increasing at a rate of 10 to 15 percent every year.

Sweetener-The main role of sodium saccharin-Future Chemical

Sodium saccharin is a synthetic sweetener commonly used in the food industry and has the longest history of use. It is not metabolized and absorbed by the human body and is stable in various food production processes. Therefore, in today’s pursuit of low-sugar dietary habits, saccharin sodium has a greater market demand, but the sweetness of 500 times sucrose is 0 calories, which is not absorbed by the human body and does not increase the blood sugar value, which is suitable for diabetic patients.

In the United States, sodium saccharin is mainly used in food and other industries, about 61% is used in non-alcoholic beverages, 20% is used in food sweeteners, and 19% is used in other foods and beverages, that is, about 60%-80% % Sodium saccharin is used in food and beverages.

Therefore, in the process of food production, in order to balance the sweetness, color, or ensure the quality and taste of the product, the manufacturer will add food additives such as saccharin sodium to achieve a good taste. It can not only provide good flavor but also ensure people’s needs. It can be said that the use of sodium saccharin is a choice that kills two birds with one stone.

Routine application of sodium saccharin:

As a synthetic sweetener, sodium saccharin is mainly used in pickles, fruit juices, candied fruit, wine preparation, etc.; it can also be used as a sweetener in the food industry for the preparation of beverages, sweets, etc. This is indispensable in people’s life. At the same time, the toothpaste, food and beverages we use to brush our teeth every day contain sodium saccharin.

Types of Sodium Saccharin:

Sodium saccharin can be used in a wide range of applications. First, it can be used in poultry feed as a sweet feed additive and sweetener. Second, it is used in daily chemical industries such as toothpaste, cigarettes, cosmetics, mouthwash, eye drops, etc. It can improve the whiteness of teeth when used in toothpaste. The last one is the electroplating industry. The electroplating grade sodium saccharin is mainly used as a brightener. Adding a small amount of sodium saccharin can improve the brightness and softness of electroplating nickel. The general usage amount is 0.1–0.3 grams per liter of potion. In addition, the electroplating industry uses a large amount of sodium saccharin, and the total export volume accounts for the majority of China’s output.

Levels of Sodium Saccharin:

1.Sodium Saccharin Dihydrate:

Colorless crystals, odorless and slightly fragrant. soluble in water. 8-12 mesh sodium saccharin is a common mesh, and there are 4-6 mesh, 5-8 mesh, 6-8 mesh, 8-10 mesh, 8-12 mesh, 8-16 mesh, 10-20 mesh, 20 mesh -40 mesh, 40-80 mesh, etc.

The regular packing is 25kg/bag. Can be customized to meet customer needs.

Here are the product pictures:

5-8 mesh sodium saccharin

8-10 mesh sodium saccharin

10-20mesh sodium saccharin

20-40mesh sodium saccharin

2.Sodium Saccharin Anhydrous

Sodium Saccharin Anhydrous is a white odorless or slightly aromatic white crystalline powder. Dissolved in water, it is neutral and has a great solubility in water. This product does not contain crystal water, it is white powder, and its sweetness is higher than that of aqueous saccharin sodium. This product is soluble in ethanol. This strain is a sweetener that replaces sugar and is widely used in food and feed. The purity of anhydrous saccharin sodium is very high. In general, the higher the purity of anhydrous saccharin sodium, the better the quality. When we use it, the less processing we need to do, we are in many places. It is safe to use. Advanced technology, high-end quality.

The regular packing is 25kg/bag. Can be customized to meet customer needs.

Here are the product pictures

3.Highly insoluble saccharin

High-purity insoluble saccharin is a white crystalline powder. This product is mainly used for the production of high-end feed, pesticide intermediates, pharmaceutical intermediates, etc. Our factory has the production capacity of upstream raw materials for synthesizing high-purity insoluble saccharin, so the output and quality of insoluble saccharin are guaranteed.

Here are the product pictures

4.Dry insoluble saccharin

Dry insoluble saccharin is white powder. This product is an intermediate for pesticides, pharmaceuticals and food additives, and there are not many sodium saccharin factories capable of producing this product. This product is also the raw material of methanesulfonamide. Food uses are similar to sodium saccharin. Our factory has strong production capacity and guaranteed quality, and welcomes long-term cooperation.

Here are the product pictures

The development trend of sodium saccharin

Saccharin was discovered by American scientists in 1878 and was quickly accepted by the food industry and consumers. Some studies have shown that it has the possibility of causing bladder cancer in animal experiments, but no adverse effects have been found in human trials. Numerous studies have demonstrated no association between saccharin and developing cancer, especially bladder cancer. All studies point to a clear fact that normal doses of saccharin intake do not have much impact on human health. Questions about the safety of saccharin stem from a flawed study. However, in further research, it was shown that the root cause of cancer caused by saccharin in white mice was that too much saccharin was fed, so that its crystals were precipitated in the bladder, and the human body was very bulky compared to white mice, and the urine pH was more biased. The acidity is not easy to separate out, so the presumption that saccharin may be a carcinogen is not reliable according to the previous basis. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences came to the same conclusion in 2000 that saccharin had been removed from the list of suspected carcinogens.