Anionic surfactants are called anionic surfactants after ionization in water, and they have the longest history of development, the largest production volume and the largest variety of products among surfactants.
It is usually insoluble at low temperatures, and if the concentration of the solution continues to increase, it will reach a certain limit value and then precipitate out the hydrated active agent.
If the temperature of water is raised, the solubility increases rapidly at a certain temperature due to the dissolution of micelles, which is called the point of abrupt change.
This property is unique to ionic surfactants.
Soap, alkyl benzene sulfonate, alkyl sulfonate salt, alkyl sulfonate, alkyl sulfate, fluorinated fatty acid salt, polysiloxane, fatty alcohol sulfate, fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate, α-alkenyl sulfonate, fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate, alkyl alcohol amide, alkyl sulfonate acetamide, alkyl succinate sulfonate, alkyl amine alkyl benzene sulfonate, naphthenic acid salt, alkyl phenol sulfonate, polyoxyethylene monolaurate, etc.
1.The full name is anionic polyacrylamide, which is a water-soluble polymer, mainly used in industrial wastewater flocculation, as well as sedimentation and clarification, as well as metallurgical wastewater, sewage treatment, etc. It can also be used for drinking water clarification and purification treatment.
The main advantage of this anionic surfactant is that the water solubility is very good, even in cold water can be dissolved, and the use of a small amount can play a great effect, the use of this substance can also use other inorganic flocculants, there will be greater effect.
2.Fatty acid salts.
This was the first anionic surfactant to be developed and is also the more important detergent and now a very important variety of skin cleanser. This anionic surfactant generally has the ability of wetting, foaming and stain removal, so it is widely used in washing. And with this substance to wash some protein-based fiber products, after cleaning more luster, good elasticity, and more soft.
3.These anionic surfactants, which mainly produce anionic sulfonates after ionization in water, mainly include alkyl benzene sulfonates, alpha olefin sulfonates, alkyl sulfonates, etc.
Among them, alkyl benzene sulfonate is a yellow oily liquid, which is an important anionic surfactant in the table, and is an important component of Chinese synthetic detergents. The main advantage of this anionic surfactant is that it has very good detergency, and has good foaming, good foam stability, and relatively stable chemical properties, and it is important that the cost is relatively low and the sources are widely available, so it is more widely used in civil and industrial cleaning machine is more widely used.
Humans obtained substances for washing and decontamination from natural plants such as saponin (which contains saponin) and grass ash as early as B.C. Later, primitive forms of soap emerged, which were the first anionic active agents used.
The world’s first synthetic detergent was created in Germany in World War I. It was called “Nehel” and contained short-chain alkyl naphthalene sulfonates. By 1984, the total production of surfactants in the world had reached 14 million tons/year, with tens of thousands of varieties, analyzed from various research developments.
The future trends are generally:
(1)from a single function to multi-functional development
(2)From generality to specialization
(3)Adopting multiple compounding of active substances
(4)Emphasis on the “green” mark and “moderate” development direction
(5)Study of phosphorus substitution in inorganic additives
(6)Organic additives to polymer electrolyte-based organic actives
(7)Biological additives using mixed enzymes
(8)Development of special surfactants containing F-Si, etc.